When it comes to working with enzymes, less is definitely more. Even when working with an enzyme in a formulation, the margin of error for overdosing or underdosing the ingredient is small.
âDepending on the enzyme, overdosing can lead to serious processing problems, from wet, sticky dough to dry, tight dough,â said Sherill Cropper, PhD, New Product Development Manager, Lesaffre Corp. âIn addition, overdose may have no functional impact, which would mean that the formulator wastes money on too many enzymes for the desired effect.
Overdose affects volume, resilience, crumb structure and may even cause unwanted rind color.
“An overdose of a fresh enzyme solution could result in an overly gummy product or keyholes,” said Jesse Stinson, director, RD&A, Corbion. âAn overdose of a fortifying enzyme solution could result in loss of bread volume or changes in the handling properties of the dough. “
Kerry Taste & Nutrition uses its application dose effect analytical data to ensure its enzyme dosages are correct. Otherwise, real quality problems may arise.
âThe use of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes ensures optimal dough handling and processing without affecting the starch content,â said Richie Pigott, vice president of business development, northern enzymes. American, Kerry. “However, an overdose of NSP-degrading enzymes can make the dough very sticky, leading to higher water uptake and more waste.”
Generally, overdose is easy to avoid as the enzymes have recommended use levels. By working within these ranges, bakers can find the optimum amount of enzymes for their formulation.
âOnce you’ve maximized the level of enzyme usage, you can’t benefit from adding higher levels; sometimes less is more, âsaid Ashley Beech, Senior Applications Technologist, Baking Enzymes, IFF Nutrition & Biosciences. “Many enzymes have a point of no return once you reach overdose levels and the substrate is no longer available.”
John Hinds, director of the innovation center, Cain Foods, agreed that a little goes a long way. When working with enzymes, he suggested bakers make small incremental adjustments to avoid overdosing.
Bakers have a plethora of enzymes to simultaneously improve several aspects of their formulation: anti-stale, gluten replacement, emulsification and oxidation, for example. However, mixing enzymes to take full advantage of this wide range of features is where overdose becomes a real problem and the window for error narrows.
âDepending on the company producing a blend of enzymes, each batch might contain the same or similar enzymes. So if they are all used in the same product, various enzymes could be overdosed, âexplained Boutte. “The bottom line is that each enzyme can only be used once at an optimal dose.”
To avoid overdosing while creating a synergistic enzyme solution, John Sawicki, director of R&D and quality control for BreadPartners, suggested bakers avoid maximizing the usage levels of the enzymes used. Really lean into that less is more mentality while combining them with enzymes that are less susceptible to overdose.
“When using enzymes that may be overdosed, it is important to use them at use levels, not at their maximum level, but at a lower level in combination with other enzymes with which they can. have synergies, âhe said. âFinding the right combination of the old versus the new with lower than high costs will minimize overdose issues while remaining affordable. “
When developing enzyme blends, it’s also essential to remember that some enzymes are more susceptible to overdose than others, said Troy Boutte, vice president of innovation, AB Mauri North America.
âInterestingly, the fungal alpha-amylase is virtually immune to overdose and can be added at 20 times the normal level while still making salable bread,â he said. âHowever, some bacterial phospholipases or alpha-amylases can overdose with only 30% overdose. And while not fully understood, some flours are much more susceptible to overdose than others. Ultimately, it’s important to try and develop an understanding of what you’re buying, how it works, and what your best and upper limits are.
It’s not just about understanding the ingredients in a batch of enzymes or the optimal rate of use. Processing conditions, such as heat, deactivate enzymes. If the dough spends too much time lying on the ground, that’s extra time that the enzyme has to work on.
âOvertime of enzyme working on the dough gives the same effect as using too much enzyme; it’s an overdose based on the treatment conditions, âsaid Christina Barsa, Certified Food Scientist and Technical Sales Representative, Enzyme Development Corp. âFormulators need to mimic the production procedure as much as possible and realize that they will likely have to reduce their enzyme dosage when they increase.